Many businesses simply don't realise the opportunities available to them.
Your trading stock is an asset that is recorded on your balance sheet. In most cases it should be tax neutral to you. The cost of purchasing stock is expensed in your profit and loss account and offset by the value of the stock asset, until you sell it.
While the amount of stock you are carrying will impact on your cash position, because you have your funds tied up in it, there is no direct impact on your profits or taxable income until you sell that stock.
However, if at 30 June some of your stock is worth less than its cost price, you have the option to value it at the lower figure and take the tax write off now, rather than wait until the stock is sold. This reduction in your stock value will produce a tax saving for you.
Once you have done your stocktake (assuming you need to do one), you can choose what method to apply depending on the stock and your circumstances. The different ways of valuing stock can produce different results. Most businesses chose to value trading stock at cost – but you have the option of valuing your stock at cost, market selling price, or replacement value.
For example, if you have stock that is about to become obsolete, valuing it at cost price for tax purposes is not going to help you. In this situation, you might be better off to value the stock at market selling price, particularly if it is a large quantity. The tax rules also allow you to use a value that is lower than cost, market selling price or replacement value if this is warranted because of obsolescence or other special circumstances as long as the value you elect is reasonable.
Take the example of vitamins with a use by date that only has a month or two left on it. Leading up to and once the vitamins reach their use by date they are unsaleable. In this case, you would estimate how much of the stock you are likely to sell prior to the use by date and at what price. Using previous sales as a guide, if you only expect to sell 15% of the stock prior to the use by date, you would use the market value of this 15%. Other than when you sell your stock, your tax return gives you a once a year opportunity to adjust your stock values and realise any losses.
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Another way businesses disadvantage themselves is not taking the Government concessions available to them. The R&D tax incentive and Export Market Development Grant are a classic case. In the case of R&D incentives, if you develop new technologies or products, you might be eligible for a 43.5% tax offset (if your business has a turnover under $20 million). The Export Market Development Grant reimburses up to 50% of eligible export promotion expenses above $5,000 provided that the total expenses are at least $15,000.